The World Anti-Doping Agency (Wada) has ended a three-year suspension which followed a major scandal over alleged state-sponsored doping.
This move has been strongly opposed by leading athletes and anti-doping bodies, who have labelled it “the greatest treachery against clean athletes”.
Wada president Sir Craig Reedie said the reinstatement was “subject to strict conditions”.
“This decision provides a clear timeline by which Wada must be given access to the former Moscow laboratory data and samples,” the 77-year-old Briton said.
He said the “great majority” of the 12-strong executive committee had voted in favour of the recommendation at a meeting in Seychelles.
However, a lawyer for Russian whistleblower Grigory Rodchenkov called it “the greatest treachery against clean athletes in Olympic history”.
“The United States is wasting its money by continuing to fund Wada, which is obviously impotent to address Russia’s state-sponsored doping,” said Jim Walden.
Russia’s anti-doping agency (Rusada) has been suspended since 2015 over alleged state-backed doping after it was accused of covering up drug abuse – including while the country hosted the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics – in a Wada-commissioned report.